Book 'behavior' Variations (continuous, individuals)

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Use cases

Book objects (and their digital surrogates) come in a variety of forms and layouts that affect how we might display a resource to users, such as codices with the concept of recto and verso, scrolls or accordion books that have a continuous layout, or a digitized codex that has been imaged as 2-page spreads.

To tell a presentation client how to display a sequence of resources in relation to one another, IIIF uses the behavior property. For example, a collection of unordered photographs might use the property "behavior": "unordered"; or, a standard codex might be best presented in book-view, with two facing pages displaying next to one another. In this case, the behavior property value used is paged. For an example Manifest using the "behavior": "paged" property, see the Book (simplest) recipe.

This recipe provides example Manifests demonstrating the use of the behavior property for two additional book-related use cases:

Use case 1: An accordion book that has been imaged by capturing each segment through multiple shots, allowing the book to be “stitched together” in the viewer for a single continuous view. In this example, the Manifest will use the behavior property continuous.

Use case 2: A book (codex) object where the page images were captured with one image per 2-page spread. In this example, the Manifest will use the behavior property individuals.

Implementation notes

The default behavior value, if not specified, is individuals for Layout Behaviors (as opposed to Temporal, Collection, Range, and Miscellaneous Behaviors).

In addition to behavior, you may want to use the viewingDirection property (see Viewing direction and its effect on navigation recipe), for example right-to-left or top-to-bottom, depending on the expected user experience for viewing the resource. Interactions between viewingDirection and behavior, especially when they are set on multiple and/or hierarchical resources, need special attention. For more information, consult the Presentation 3.0 spec on behavior to keep current with future releases.


The property is permissible for all resource types, but some values (unordered, individuals, continuous, paged) are permissible only for Collection, Manifest, and Range, while others (facing-pages, non-paged) are permissible only on Canvas.


Use case 1: Accordion book (continuous)

This Manifest represents an Ethiopic accordion book with a continuous layout running left-to-right. It has four images that, when using the "behavior": "continuous" property, will display as a single continuous image in the viewer.

JSON-LD | View in Mirador

Use case 2: Book imaged as 2-page spreads (individuals)

This Manifest represents a book imaged as 2-page spreads (two facing pages in a single image). When using the "behavior": "individuals" property, the presentation client will force a one-at-a-time view and remove the “book view” option.

JSON-LD | View in Universal Viewer | View in Mirador

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