Next Steps for the International Image Interoperability Framework

180411 (Final Version)

1. Fundamental Purpose

The original purpose of the International Image Interoperability Framework (IIIF) community and the IIIF Consortium (IIIF-C) that helps to organize and support its work is currently (as of April 2018) expressed on the About IIIF web page:

"Access to image-based resources is fundamental to research, scholarship and the transmission of cultural knowledge. Digital images are a container for much of the information content in the Web-based delivery of images, books, newspapers, manuscripts, maps, scrolls, single sheet collections, and archival materials. Yet much of the Internet's image-based resources are locked up in silos, with access restricted to bespoke, locally built applications.

A growing community of the world's leading research libraries and image repositories have embarked on an effort to collaboratively produce an interoperable technology and community framework for image delivery.

IIIF (International Image Interoperability Framework) has the following goals:
  • To give scholars an unprecedented level of uniform and rich access to image-based resources hosted around the world.
  • To define a set of common application programming interfaces that support interoperability between image repositories.
  • To develop, cultivate and document shared technologies, such as image servers and web clients, that provide a world-class user experience in viewing, comparing, manipulating and annotating images."

Recent advances have extended the scope of IIIF beyond images (including time- based media and discussions of 3D materials). Likewise, the target audience and beneficiaries for IIIF now include more than scholars, image repositories and research enterprises. This document aims to position IIIF to adapt to its success and growth by articulating a set of next steps for structure and management of the IIIF Consortium.

IIIF Community in Its Current State

There are hundreds of people active in some form of IIIF community participation (participating in working group meetings, serving on IIIF working groups, building compatible software, doing local implementations, etc.). The IIIF-Discuss email list has nearly 800 members; more than 700 people attended various IIIF events in 2017 in the US, Canada, UK, the Vatican, Poland, Japan, and China. There are technical specifications and community groups (A/V Technical Specification Group; Discovery Technical Specification Group; Manuscripts Community Group: Museums Community Group; Newspapers Community Group; Software Developers Community Group; Text Granularity Technical Specification Group; with at least one other group forming at this writing). In addition, the IIIF Community has benefitted from the devoted and continuous efforts of 13 people on the Coordinating Committee (aka CoCo) and five on the Editorial Committee (with four of five on the Editorial Committee also serving on CoCo).

There are more than 130 institutions worldwide that have implemented IIIF or in the process of doing so. A community survey in 2017 tallied more than 400 million images made available via IIIF; the true current number is likely near 1 billion. There are dozens of open source and commercial software applications and systems that are IIIF compatible—many with significant existing or growing user bases of their own. There is also a sizeable and growing number of utilities, services and other resources surrounding IIIF and enriching the ecosystem (see Image Servers; Image Server Shims; Image API Libraries; Image Tools; Presentation API Libraries; Presentation API Shims; Presentation Manifest Tool; Content Search API Servers; Authentication; Tutorials; Videos and Slide Decks; Discovery; Annotations; CMS Integration; Newspapers; STEM; Experiments and Fun; Community).

Since its inception, there have been a dozen working group meetings, and scores of conference presentations, workshops, and regional events devoted to IIIF and its related products. There have been some surprising endorsements for IIIF and its viewers; the Department de Monnaies, Médailles, et Antiques of the Bibliothèque nationale de France has presented IIIF and Mirador to a conference numismatics specialists in November 2017 in Amsterdam, for instance.

In short, IIIF has proven enormously successful and vibrant, with impressive, rapid growth—so much so that coordination of effort and promotion of IIIF to new potential stakeholders requires more attention, support and structure.

IIIF has made impressive progress towards realizing each of these objectives; it has seen substantial uptake across the globe; it is now moving beyond just image-based resources, with developments and discussions touching on AV, 3D, and scientific data attached to STEM imagery. However, to coordinate the current level of activity, to maintain its current trajectory and to achieve its full potential, IIIF now requires restructuring given the growth and change it has experienced.

There are three fundamental goals on which the IIIF-Consortium now needs to focus to advance and support IIIF and end users of resources presented through IIIF:

  1. Recruiting more institutions (libraries, museums, archives, et al.) to make their image (AV, 3D, scientific data) resources IIIF compliant in order to better support more scholars, students, and even citizens in their own endeavors; this should be a constant priority for both IIIF and IIIF-C.
  2. Supporting and celebrating of the work of the IIIF community. As a community-powered initiative, progress in IIIF is generated from its grassroots. Identifying and recognizing the contributions of the individuals that are making IIIF such a powerful service the commonwealth of knowledge, and making it easier for the and newcomers to continue their work, is critical for IIIF’s continued vitality, tasks IIIF-C should embrace in the provision of more support for the IIIF community as a whole;
  3. Making IIIF images discoverable: despite the large population of images that are IIIF compliant and theoretically accessible and anticipating even more growth in that population as well as the assembly of new types of images (3D, AV, STEM), discoverability is still elusive; we must advance the value of IIIF by increasing the possibilities for discovery of IIIF-compliant resources and adding more IIIF-compatible software to the ecosystem.

Untapped Potential

The steps proposed in these Next Steps provide a framework for IIIF community growth and engagement starting in 2018 and going well beyond. These Next Steps are based on the MOU agreed by the original 11 institutional members that will remain in force until 2021. These Next Steps are intended to take us from strength to strength and were presented in draft in order to allow IIIF-C members and others in the IIIF community to comment and suggest changes to them, many of which have been incorporated in this final version of the Next Steps. This final version of the Next Steps was produced from earlier drafts, commentary, and discussion on the 5 April 2018 meeting of the IIIF Executive Committee. These next steps were approved by with 7 votes “for” and none against on that call, and is now submitted to the Executive Committee for voting from members of the Executive Committee either not voting or not on the 5 April teleconference.

2. Membership: Tiers of IIIF-C Membership

The IIIF Consortium (IIIF-C) is the formal entity meant to undertake the business affairs, facilitate the organizational aspects of the IIIF community, and to support the technical developments of the IIIF community. Individuals, institutions, corporations and consortia may join IIIF-C to help support IIIF. Note, while membership is welcome and encouraged, membership in the IIIF-C is not required to participate in the IIIF community, whether in making use of IIIF APIs, compatible software or interoperable content, or in participating in community discussions, working groups or events.

  1. When IIIF-C was created in July 2015, by the Initial Founding Members, eleven institutions that signed the original MOU in July of 2015, and constitute the Executive Committee until June of 2021; these members of the Executive committee are: Oxford University, Wellcome Trust, British Library, National Library of Norway, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Yale, ArtStor, Princeton University, Stanford University, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, and Cornell University. These institutions agreed to serve for up to six years in order to provide for orderly and sustainable development of IIIF and the IIIF-C; they also agreed that by the end of 6 years, i.e in 2021, their oversight and commitment would pass to a new governance group, with a structure to be defined and composition to be determined by IIIF-C wide elections.

    All IIIF-C Members since June 2015 have joined as Additional Founding Members. Founding Membership is an honorific designation with no additional perquisites. The Executive Committee agreed in its original MOU that once the total number of Founding Members hit 20, an election to add two new members of the Executive Committee would be held. This election occurred, adding in December 2016 the Getty Trust and Europeana to the Executive Committee, each for a three- year term. It was also agreed that institutions joining IIIF-C until 31 December 2017 would be regarded as Additional Founding Members, after which time the IIIF-C would move to establish new tiers of membership [NB: Considering the desirability of attracting a few more members who had inquired of Founding Membership before the end date of 31 December 2017, we have extended the final date to 20 May 2018, the day before the next face-to-face meeting of the Executive Committee and the following days of IIIF conferences in Washington, DC; we hope to hear from those institutions considering Founding Membership in the IIF Consortium soon.] Because we wish to stimulate participation in IIIF and thereby make even more progress on the fundamental purposes of IIIF and the three foci specified in section 1, above, we propose two tiers of membership in the IIIF Consortium, presented next.

  2. Tiers of Membership for 2018 and Beyond, associated annual fees coming into force as of the approval of these Next Steps by the Executive Committee

    1. Full Members from non-commercial institutions (libraries, archives or museums); possibility of election to one seat of the thirteen member Executive Committee of IIIF-C; the annual fee for Full Members is US$10,000;
    2. Associate Members are welcome, but would not be eligible to serve on the Executive Committee; the annual fee for Associate Members is US$2,500;
    3. Commercial membership (commercial corporations are defined for this organization as those whose existence is dependent upon revenues from the sale of products and/or services); up to three seats of the Executive Committee may be filled by Commercial Full Members; Commercial members of IIIF-C are expected to engage in supportive ways to all members of the IIIF-C, including other Commercial members; individuals from commercial members may serve on committees and working groups of IIIF and participate in other community activities.
      • Tiers of cost for Commercial members:
        1. Annual membership fee for Commercial Full Members will be US$10,000;
        2. Annual membership fee for Commercial Associate Members will be US$2,500;
    4. Consortia and other membership organizations are welcome and eligible for IIIF-C membership, however in this case only the umbrella organization is a member of IIIF-C and individual consortial members of such consortia will NOT be considered IIIF-C Full or Associate Members; IIIF-C does not offer consortial pricing;
    5. Only Full Members of the IIIF-C, including Commercial Full Members, may be elected to serve on the Executive Committee;
    6. All Members of IIIF-C will receive benefits such as discounted registration fees for event participation, and others as they develop;

IIIF-C Membership Tiers for Non-Commercial Organizations

Membership Tier Annual Membership Fee (US$) IIIF-C Executive Committee Seats for this Class of Membership
Full $10,000 13
Associate $2,500 0

IIIF-C Membership Tiers for Commercial Corporations

IIIF-C Corporate Membership Tiers Commercial Corporations*
Annual Revenue (US$) Annual Membership Fee (US$) IIIF-C Executive Committee Seats for this Class of Membership
Full$10,000Up to 3

* Note that Commercial Corporations, defined as those whose existence is dependent upon revenues from the sale of products and/or services, may hold up to 3 seats on the IIIF-C Executive Committee.

3. IIIF-C Organization

  1. The IIIF-C Executive Committee will be responsible for approving IIIF-C annual budget, authorization of positions, appointment of positions, setting policy, setting strategic direction, determining member benefits and rates, assessment of organizational and staff performance, and empaneling committees (position search, nominations, compensation, etc.).

    1. The Executive Committee shall meet at least twice a year; once via teleconference and once face to face;

    2. Membership on the Executive Committee is held on an institutional basis; institutional members of the Executive Committee will be elected for three year terms in the election of 2021. It is expected that the representative of any institution elected to the Executive Committee will be an officer or senior policy maker of the Full Member institution. Should a representative of an institution become unable to serve, that institution would provide a replacement representative to the Executive Committee;
      1. The MOU agreed in June 2015 by the original 11 members of the Executive Committee remains in force, continuing the institutional membership and stewardship of those original 11 member institution; the election in 2021 for members of the new Executive Committee may replace some or all of those original 11 members; however, those members of the original Executice Committee may be re-elected to the Executive Committee in the 2021 election, provided they are Full Members at that time;
      2. The election of two additional institutional members, Getty and Europeana, of the Executive Committee are and will remain members of the Executive Committee, completing their first three year term at the time of the election 2020; these institutions, provided they are each Full Members, may be re-elected to the Executive Committee;
      3. ArtStor, a member of the original Executive Committee will continue to have a seat on the Executive Committee until the election of 2021, at which time as a Commercial Full Member, it may be re-elected to serve on the Executive Committee.
    3. The Executive Committee will elect a chair, vice-chair, secretary, and treasurer as well as two counselors from its membership. This group shall together be termed “Operating Committee” of the IIIF-C Executive Committee; a Managing Director (see below) will report to this group. The Operating Committee will receive and create reports, monitor and verify transactions such as those for proposed new members in the various tiers, make or verify appointments to Committees, establish and manage relationships with related collaborating organizations, assist with Membership recruitment, conduct performance appraisals of staff, and in general oversee the vitality and health of the IIIF-C, keeping the entire Executive Committee informed;
      1. The Operating Committee shall meet monthly via teleconference
      2. Officers / members of the Operating Committee are elected on an individual basis; there is no right of succession by another individual from the same institution;
      3. Officers / members of the Operating Committee will serve terms in those roles co-terminus with their institutional membership on the Executive Committee, save that of the current chair of the Executive Committee whose term ends with the election of 2018; that chair may be elected to another three year term;
      4. The Managing Director is an ex-officio member of the IIIF-C Executive Committee with voice, but without vote;
    4. If these next steps are adopted, there shall be an election in May 2018 of officers by members of the IIIF-C Executive Committee; those officers shall be chair, vice chair, secretary, and treasurer, each for a three year term; nominees for these positions shall be made by a nominating committee selected from the IIIF-C Executive Committee members in the weeks after the adoption of these next steps, as modified;
    5. in May of 2021, there shall be a IIIF-C nominating committee consisting of members of the IIIF Consortium, including members of the IIIF-C Executive Committee; this nominating committee shall prepare an election of new members of the IIIF-Executive Committee, agreeing among themselves how to stagger three year terms of those elected to the Executive Committee ; as staggered terms end, there shall be elections of members to the IIIF-C Executive Committee for three year terms; such staggered terms shall apply to those elected from the membership of the Executive Committee to officer roles in the Executive Committee; subsequent elections as staggered terms end will apply to officer roles with three year terms in the Executive Committee;
    Month Milestone
    January 2018 Announce proposed Next Steps; call for comments
    Feb-April 2018 Discuss these Next Steps across IIIF; Approval of These Next Steps, with modifications as desired and necessary, by IIIF-C Executive Committee
    May 2018 Election for officers and other members of the Operating Committee
    May-June 2020 Election of 2 institutional members of the Executive Committee (terms of Getty & Europeana ending)
    May-June 2021 Ongoing nominations and election of new members to Executive Committee, as determined by Nominating Committee chosen from among all Full Members of IIIF-C, to provide for smooth succession
  2. Committees. As a grassroots initiative, IIIF’s coordinated activities are organized and executed by various groups. IIIF Committees are one such type of group. (Others are Community Groups, Technical Specification Groups, and more ephemeral teams, such as the organizing and program groups for events.) IIIF Committees are structural elements of the IIIF Consortium, and charged with one or more critical elements of IIIF business / operational affairs.
    1. Current & prospective IIIF Committees comprise:
      1. Editorial Committee, with membership and process defined here:, which specifies IIIF APIs;
      2. Coordinating Committee, which will advise and assist the Managing Director and IIIF staff by helping with forming and implementing initiatives, conducting critical functions such as outreach, training and documentation, supporting specification work, soliciting software development, fostering adoption of IIIF, and generally strengthening the community and helping maintain its well-being;
        1. The Coordinating Committee leads IIIF’s community-based efforts across different specification efforts, working groups, subject domains, geographic regions and types of participants;
        2. The Managing Director will be an ex officio member with voice and vote on the Coordinating Committee;
        3. Membership in the Coordinating Committee will be drawn from active participants in IIIF Committees, Working Groups and other community efforts.
      3. There is a Code of Conduct Committee and an extensive frame of reference for the IIIF at;
      4. A Technical Review Committee shall be explored, and assuming consensus on scope, process, and structure, shall be established in order to add more structure, resources, and participatory on-ramps for the API specification process;
    2. As a fundamental principle, membership in all IIIF Committees shall be drawn from active participants in IIIF, shall be diverse and inclusive, and will rotate over time as much as possible, ensuring smooth succession and ongoing development of talent. Participation in these IIIF Committees is open to all members of the IIIF community; institutional membership in IIIF-C is not a prerequisite to participation;
    3. New IIIF Committees may be established by the Managing Director, with the approval of the Executive Committee. Committees of the IIIF-C shall have terms of reference, initial appointed members, and defined reporting and/or communication responsibilities among other entities of the IIIF-C;
    4. IIIF Committees may be terminated, and members may be removed from a Committee, by the Managing Director with the advice and consent of the Executive Committee;
  3. Community Groups, Technical Specification Groups, et al.

    IIIF benefits from various community groups that are already established, with new ones being formed as necessary. These are named in Section 1 of this document, and on the IIIF website. These groups serve to coordinate interest and activity around specific aspects of IIIF, such as specific domains (e.g., Manuscripts), functions (e.g. Software Development), sectors (e.g., Museums), or API specifications (e.g. A/V). Groups are also formed to organize and execute on specific events (such as the organizing & program committees for the annual IIIF Conference, or for regional events).
    1. As a fundamental principle, participation in all IIIF community groups shall be inclusive of new and varied perspectives. Leadership of the groups should be drawn from active group members, and should rotate over time as much as possible, ensuring smooth succession and ongoing development of talent. As with IIIF Committees, participation is open to all members of the IIIF community and institutional membership in IIIF-C is not a prerequisite;
    2. New community groups may be established by the Managing Director, with the approval of the Coordinating Committee and/or the Editorial Committee (in the case of Technical Specification Groups). Community groups shall have a charge, designated Chairs, and defined reporting and communication channels;
    3. Community groups may be terminated, and members may be removed from a groups, by the Managing Director with the advice and consent of the Coordinating Committee, Editorial Committee, and/or Code of Conduct committee (as appropriate);
    4. Community groups will conduct their work (except when inappropriate) in open channels, and produce decision minutes for each of their meetings for wide distribution that are open to the community.

4. Staffing Plan

  1. If these Next Steps are approved, three staff positions are authorized: a Managing Director, a Technical Coordinator, and a Community Support and Events Associate;

    1. The Managing Director, who is the senior operating executive of the IIIF-C, will be responsible for the business affairs of IIIF-C, strategic planning, and IIIF-C support of the IIIF community;
    2. The Technology Coordinator (currently in post), reporting to the Managing Director, has responsibilities for provisioning IIIF’s technical infrastructure, facilitating technical adoption and integration of IIIF by new adopters, and serving as a general technical resource to the community;
    3. A Community Support and Events Officer, reporting to the Managing Director, will have responsibilities to help organize events, publish information, and support the Managing Director in administering the consortium’s business affairs as well as supporting IIIF’s community and communications operations.
  2. Additional staff may be appointed with the approval of the Executive Committee, provided the Managing Director provides justification for such positions and there is adequate revenue to support each. The Executive Committee, approves and authorizes staff positions;

  3. Reporting Relationships and Staff Support

    1. The Managing Director reports to and receives direction from the Chair and members of the Operating Committee;
    2. All other staff members report to and receive direction from the Managing Director; there shall be annual performance reviews by the Managing Director, who shall recommend salary increases and possible bonuses as well as possible disciplinary or other employment actions to the Operating Committee of the Executive Committee;
    3. There shall be mentors from the Executive Committee for each staff member, who will communicate monthly with each staff member regarding working conditions, present and future career possibilities, and other matters germane to staff employment; such mentors will judge whether and how to share information received in mentoring sessions to the Operating Committee and/or the entire Executive Committee, the Managing Director, and/or to CLIR, the administrative host of IIIF-C; human resources issues ordinarily should be dealt with on a person to person basis;
    4. To offer a collegial environment and larger professional network of a stable organization, each IIIF staff member is expected to participate in quarterly all hands meetings of the CLIR staff, at least one of which will be by in-person appearance at such meetings; CLIR executives will provide feedback on IIIF staff needs to the Operating Committee and the Managing Director of IIIF-C as it sees fit;

5. IIIF intentions for diversity and inclusion; some expectations for conduct, both professional and social

IIIF is already a community comprising almost 1000 individuals from numerous national, ethnic, professional and other backgrounds and over 130 known institutions (set in various cultural, regulatory, and national settings). The IIIF Consortium intends and will be actively and continuously engaged in maintaining and supporting the inclusion of a wide variety of persons and institutions with varying backgrounds, each of whom/which share a devotion to the fundamental purposes of the International Image Interoperability Framework.

In addition, diversity of views as well as diversity of ethnic, religious, professional, regional origins, genders and gender preferences, and relevant experiences, already very much in place in the IIIF community are strongly positive aspects of the open community that has produced IIIF and related technologies.

Given these principles of inclusion and diversity, the IIIF Consortium and the IIIF Community need to expect tolerant and civil discourse, and respectful conduct – in all events, meetings large and small, and conversations, whether in person or held by telecommunication technologies, including email, of course. These expectations are laid out in the IIIF Code of Conduct: Cases of failures to meet the expectations defined in the IIIF Code of Conduct should be reported ASAP to the Managing Director, members of the Code of Conduct Committee, and/or to members of the Executive Committee. IIIF-C may decide to address such failures through a variety of sanctions to those responsible.

In light of the fundamental importance of having a healthy, inclusive and diverse community for IIIF, the Managing Director, in consultation with the Executive Committee and the IIIF community at large, will be advised by the Code of Conduct Committee and produce an annual plan that advances a key aspect or aspects of diversity and inclusion in the community.

6. Budget Plan for 2018 and beyond.

The IIIF-C Executive Committee approves the annual budget.

  1. As of Janaury 2018, IIIF-C has 49 members and annual receipts of fees of US$490,000; minimum expected revenue 2018 through 2020 will be $1,470,000;
  2. As of 22 January 2018, there is roughly US$434,000 in the IIIF account at CLIR; four invitations to join IIIF-C as Full & Founding Members are outstanding;
  3. Proposed expenses to be covered by annual membership fees:
    1. staff salaries + benefits in aggregate (Managing Director, Technical Coordinator, Community Support and Events Officer proposed January 2018) = US$420,000;
    2. additional staff expenses (telecommunications, travel & lodging) = US$100,000;
    3. misc other expenses = US$80,000.00;
    4. payment to CLIR for administrative hosting = US$49,000;
    5. total proposed expenses for 2018 = US$649,000;
    6. total proposed expenses for 2019 = US$671,715 (a 3.5% increase over 2018); adding 19 new Full Members by the end of FY2019 would be optimal vii. total proposed expenses for 2020 = US$695,225 (a 3.5% increase over 2019); adding additional Full Members in 2020 and annually thereafter would be optimal;
  4. Given roughly US$434,000 in our CLIR accounts not yet encumbered AND an annual increase in IIIF-C expenses by 3.5%, IIIF-C has two years to support the staffing plans specified in this section; IIIF-C would spend with this staffing pattern and the estimated $3.5% annual increase in expenses US$649,000 in 2018, US$671, 715 in 2019, and US$695, 225 in 2020; we conservatively estimate US$434,000 in unencumbered funds in our CLIR account that would permit IIIF-C to overspend expected revenue for 24 months; this makes obvious the need to dramatically increase the number of members of IIIF-C from 49 to 69 (at US$10,000 per year income from each new Full Member or a combination of new Associate Members) in order to reach our expected expenditures in 2020; however, it should be noted that we believe that we will be successful in recruiting new members of IIIF-C from the museum and archive communities as well as new members from the library community.

Respectfully submitted,

Michael A. Keller Tom Cramer
Chair, IIIF-C Executive Committee Founder, IIIF and Chair of the Coordinating Committee

Appendix A: Rationale for Appointing a Managing Director

The need for and opportunities arising from adding a Managing Director to our staff are these:

  1. The scope and scale of IIIF is now vastly larger than when a smaller, volunteer effort and lightweight coordination could serve to administer, guide and grow the effort. The size and complexity of the community, the number of concurrent initiatives, and the numerous opportunities for advances mean that IIIF merits full time attention from senior staff, capable of both managing its assets and further growing the effort;
  2. We need a senior leader with good technical, management, and advocacy skills to recruit new members of the consortium and retain both the current members of the IIIF-C as well as the many volunteers not from a consortium member. The Managing Director will also be our representative and principal figure in developing relationships with other organizations.
  3. We need a Managing Director to guide and make most effective the work of the other staff members and to coordinate the work of the Executive Committee.
  4. The Managing Director will make decisions about venues for meetings and direct the Program Coordinator in planning and operating those meetings; the Coordinating Committee and local program committees drawn from the community will help identify the timing, location, and implementation of events.
  5. The Managing Director, working with IIIF staff, committees, and especially members of the Executive Committee will focus on strategic issues (relationships with professional and organizational groups with whom we should have ongoing collaborations that are documented and cultivated).
  6. The Managing Director will take the lead, but not sole, role in synthesizing and documenting IIIF’s progress at macroscale, as well as creating budget proposals, and preparing reports and managing funds and relationships.

Appendix B: Operational Priorities (and Supporting Needs)

Over the near term, as discussed at the IIIF Working Group meeting in Toronto, October 2017, IIIF’s roadmap and priorities must include the following elements:

  1. API Specifications Development (including discussion among the IIIF Editorial Committee, Technical Specifications Groups, the community at large, and software independent implementations):
    1. Presentation API 3.0 (enabling AV and following the W3C web annotation model)
    2. Image API 3.
    3. Search API 2.
    4. Authentication API 1.
  2. Discovery
    1. Direct participation by metadata experts from the museum, archive, and library communities in the development of specifications and requirements as well as UX/UI and prototyping and testing for metadata, search mechanisms & discovery environments, working with IIIF specialists;
    2. Support for specification of technical mechanisms to support discovery of IIIF compliant resources;
    3. Trial implementations of discovery specifications, to support experimentation and validation of technical discovery mechanisms;
    4. Community-wide discussions, end-user exploration and coalition-building for IIIF discovery, representing user expectations and requirements from diverse stakeholders from LAM sectors;
    5. Concerted, multi-party implementation on enhancing discovery among current/prospective IIIF adopters;
  3. Adoption Aids and Utilities
    1. Update existing validators
    2. Enhance validators for ongoing specs such as Presi 3 and Discovery
    3. Development and delivery of IIIF DH Kit for institutions to deliver IIIF capabilities to local digital scholarship patrons
  4. Software Development
    1. Expand the work of the Software Developer community group to improve developer-facing documentation and support. organizing and carrying forward
    2. Foster ongoing dev and enhancements to critical IIIF applications, including new software from current or new community participants.
    3. Vendors in IIIF: getting more software providers to become IIIF-compatible, and helping vendors “sell”/explain it to their customers
    4. Develop “cook books” and recipes that complement specifications with examples of code to guide development
  5. Documentation and Training
    1. Improvements to the website
    2. Ongoing curation and enhancements to Awesome IIIF
    3. Developing a culture of publishing guides and blog posts – webinars & training videos too…
    4. Stack Overflow presence
    5. Evangelizing to the broader web development and entertainment (Games, A/V) industry
    6. Update and improve presentation of IIIF reference implementations and documentation
    7. “How to Teach IIIF”, “how to Research with IIIF”
    8. Compile a list of institutions that are willing to serve as resources for new adopters
  6. New frontiers
    1. 3D: activation of a 3D community group to gather use cases, enroll current 3D experts into IIIF community, identify current software and approaches
    2. STEM: outreach to experts, gathering use cases for image interoperability and web deliver, identify current standards and software, begin structured discussions
    3. Support for full management (create, edit, delete–not just read/view)–via APIs for IIIF resources (manifests, images & annotations)
    4. Ongoing development with Annotations—creation, discovery, display, reuse
  7. Global Outreach
    1. Organize Japanese IIIF (and similar regional/national IIIF groups) activity with an international community group and (given sufficient membership) a dedicated community coordinator
    2. Build capacity to self-organize and run regional events globally
    3. Deputize international community members experts to represent / advocate for IIIF at outreach events, conferences, presentation, local meetings, targeted institutional outreach
  8. Coordinating extramural grants and projects to advance IIIF
    1. Mellon Grant to British Library has been instrumental in developing the Presentation API 3.0 specification which supports AV (meetings, use casing, software development)
    2. Cultivate additional grants and projects from stakeholders to advance IIIF in new frontiers and global outreach